Code of Ethics

A Code of Good Scientific Conduct for Economists

(in close conformity with the Code of the Verein für Socialpolitik as amended on 21 July 2012)

§ 1       Preamble

The significant social relevance of economic issues requires that particularly high standards have to be set for the professional conduct of economists. In particular, the following principles have to be observed when compiling and disseminating scientific results:

(1)transparency in all professional activities;

objectivity and independence in analysis and when issuing recommendations on economic policy;


fairness towards all those involved in the preparation of scientific papers as well as in the assessment and use of research findings.

Researchers who are involved with the LOEWE Center SAFE are required to comply with these guidelines meticulously. In particular, these researchers shall undertake to comply with the rules summarised in the following paragraph of the Code.


§ 2       Code of good scientific conduct for economists


Research shall be transparent and comprehensible. Underlying assumptions shall be stated clearly. In the case of empirical work, the data sets and programs used to replicate the results shall be made available within the bounds of the legal possibilities.


The current state of research shall be acknowledged appropriately and according to the standards prevailing. All relevant sources used in research shall be cited, including the researcher's own work.


In scientifc papers (including discussion papers), researchers shall disclose all external sources of financial support and research infrastructures used as well as any other external supporters in the form of a footnote or detailed documentation on the author's website.


In scientific papers, researchers shall disclose all indications and facts which might lead to real or even potential conflicts of interest or bias in their work. This rule shall also apply to publications in non-professional media.


Economic policy advice shall be given in accordance with professional standards. Researchers are expected to differentiate between opinions, value judgements, and factual findings.


Expert opinion shall be given in an unbiased and open-ended fashion. The results of the analysis shall not be influenced by the client's interests.


In the event that a scientific paper, a report or an expert opinion may not be published without the prior approval of a third party, researchers shall obtain third party consent and publish their work clearly identifying the declaration of consent.


Potential bias and/or conflicts of interest shall be mentioned when providing an expert opinion on or assessing scientific work and funding applications. In case of doubt, researchers shall refrain from participating.


Each SAFE researcher is required to base his or her own conduct on this Code of Ethics and to demand the same conduct from fellow academics.


§ 3       Implementation


This Code of Ethics is published on the LOEWE Center SAFE website.


Persons who publish their own publications and assessors are particularly bound to the terms of this Code of Ethics. Publications must satisfy the conditions set out in this Code of Ethics.


The LOEWE Center SAFE employs two ombudspersons (Compliance Officers) for ethical matters.



Compliance Officer:

Prof. Dr. Helmut Lütkepohl, DIW Berlin